GLYCEROL

GLYCEROLGlycerol, also known as glycerin, is an alcohol compound most commonly found in the diet as a component of fat or triglycerides. The glycerol serves as the backbone onto which fatty acid molecules are attached. Commercial preparation of glycerol can be obtained by hydrolysis (removal) of the fatty acids from the glycerol molecule.

Glycerol Claims

• Increases blood volume
• Increases water holding capacity of cells
• Enhances temperature regulation
• Improves exercise performance in the heat
• Reduces dehydration

Glycerol Theory

Glycerol is proposed to help “hyperhydrate” the body by increasing blood volume levels and helping to delay dehydration.

Glycerol Scientific Support

At least a few studies support the theory that glycerol added to fluids will increase tissue hydration compared to drinking fluid without glycerol added. Following glycerol consumption, heart rate and body core temperature are lower during exercise in the heat, suggesting an ergogenic (performance enhancing) effect. In long duration activities, a larger supply of stored water may lead to a delay in dehydration and exhaustion.

Glycerol Safety

Straight (undiluted) glycerin is not recommended for internal consumption, but no significant adverse side effects are associated with glycerin diluted with fluids. In some subjects, glycerol consumption may lead to headaches or nausea. Individuals in whom increased blood volume may be undesirable, including conditions such as pregnancy, high blood pressure, diabetes, and kidney disease, should avoid glycerol supplementation.

Glycerol Value

For endurance athletes engaged in strenuous training or competition in hot environments, consumption of glycerol containing beverages may help hydrate tissues, increase blood volume, and delay fatigue and exhaustion associated with dehydration.

Glycerol Dosage

Glycerol dosage relates to the amount of total body water so bigger people have more body water and require more glycerol to obtain the desired effect. Approximately 1 g of glycerin per kilogram (2.2 lb) of body weight is diluted in 20 to 25 ml of liquid. A 70 kg man (154 lb), therefore, would need 70 g of glycerin diluted in 1,400 to 1,750 ml of fluid (about 1 to 2 liters of fluid). The mixture should be consumed slowly over the course of one to two hours prior to exercise in the heat.

VITAMIN K

Vitamin K (phylloquinone/menaquinone) is a fat soluble vitamin required for blood clotting and bone formation. Good food sources include avocado, liver, and dark leafy greens (spinach, kale, broccoli). One cup of spinach provides almost twice the current RDA (about 120 mcg).

Vitamin K Claims

• Promotes blood clotting
• Improves bone density and bone strength

Vitamin K Theory

Vitamin K is involved in both blood clotting (via prothrombin synthesis) and bone metabolism (via carboxylation of osteocalcin). Although isolated vitamin K supplements are not available without a prescription, it is added in small amounts to most multivitamins and is frequently found as part of many bone formulas. As a dietary supplement for bone health, vitamin K promotes the adequate deposition of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus within the bone matrix (through the action of a bone protein called osteocalcin). Vitamin K is required for full activity of the osteocalcin protein, and elderly subjects with low vitamin K intake have been shown to have suboptimal bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis.

Vitamin K Scientific Support

Vitamin K’s primary function is to regulate normal blood clotting (due to its role in the synthesis of prothrombin). The current RDA for vitamin K is 1 mcg per kilogram of body weight so larger people require more vitamin K than smaller people (about 50 to 80 mcg for adults). The vitamin K content of most foods is very low (less than 10 mcg per 100 g). We get the majority of our vitamin K from a few leafy green vegetables (spinach, kale, lettuce, parsley, broccoli) and vegetable oils (soybean, cottonseed, canola, and olive) that contain high amounts (so if you don’t eat these foods regularly, then you are unlikely to consume enough vitamin K). Of the two types of naturally occurring vitamin K, absorption of phylloquinone from plant foods is poor, and the small amounts of menaquinone produced by intestinal bacteria provide only a minor portion of daily requirements.

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In bones, vitamin K mediates the gamma carboxylation of glutamyl residues on several bone proteins, most notably the bone formation protein osteocalcin. High serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and low serum concentrations of vitamin K are associated with lower bone mineral density and increased risk of hip fracture. Women with higher vitamin K intakes have a significantly lower relative risk of hip fracture (about 30 percent lower) than women with lower vitamin K intake (less than 109 mcg per day). Risk of hip fracture is also reduced by almost half for women with the highest lettuce consumption (lettuce is high in vitamin K). Women who consumed one or more servings of lettuce per day were 45 percent less likely to have low bone density compared with women eating less than one serving of lettuce each week. These findings suggest that low dietary intake of vitamin K may increase the risk of hip fracture in women.

Studies in postmenopausal women have shown that an increased intake of vitamin K results in an increase in bone formation and a slowing of bone loss. Another study, conducted in female athletes, also showed that one month of vitamin K supplementation increased the body’s ability to bind calcium in the bones and resulted in a 15 to 20 percent increase in bone formation and a 20 to 25 percent decrease in bone breakdown.

Vitamin K Safety

High intake of vitamin K, from either foods or supplements, is not recommended for individuals taking anticoagulant medications such as warfarin (Coumadin). It is widely assumed that a dietary vitamin K warfarin interaction exists, and patients taking these medications are instructed to maintain a constant dietary intake of vitamin K (to avoid fluctuations in the activity of their blood thinning medication). In most cases, a constant dietary intake of vitamin K from dietary supplements containing RDA levels (65 to 80 mcg) of vitamin K is the most acceptable practice for patients on these medications. As with any fat soluble vitamin, chronic consumption of doses above RDA levels is not recommended due to concerns regarding buildup and toxicity.

Vitamin K Value

As an isolated dietary supplement, vitamin K is not available without a prescription. RDA levels of vitamin K are often included in many multivitamins and several complete bone formulas. For individuals who may not be consuming the recommended levels of vitamin K and for elderly individuals who may have a slightly higher dietary need for vitamin K, dietary supplements may be warranted to ensure optimal calcium deposition into bone tissue.

Vitamin K Dosage

The adult RDA ranges from 60 to 80 mcg per day. Natural forms of vitamin K found in foods are only about half as potent as synthetic versions, but both are used efficiently in the body. The levels of vitamin K found in most multivitamins and bone formulas (10 to 120 mcg) are considered safe.

VITAMIN D

Although vitamin D (calcifer of cholecalciferol) is typically classified as a fat soluble vitamin, it actually functions as a hormone in the body. Because it can be manufactured by the body (formed in the skin following exposure to the ultraviolet rays of the sun), vitamin D is not technically classified as an essential nutrient at all. In the skin, exposure to ultraviolet rays converts vitamin D precursors (compounds with structures similar to cholesterol) into an inactive form of vitamin D. This inactive form is then converted to the active form by enzymes located in the liver and kidneys. Regular sunlight exposure is the primary way that most of us get our vitamin D. Food sources of vitamin D include only a few, such as vitamin D fortified milk (100 IU per cup), cod liver oil, and fatty fish such as salmon. Small amounts of vitamin D are also found in egg yolks and liver.

Vitamin D Claims
• Prevents osteoporosis
• Increases bone strength
• Increases calcium absorption
• Treats psoriasis

Vitamin D Theory

The primary effect of vitamin D is to maintain calcium levels in the blood. To do this, vitamin D promotes both the absorption of calcium from the intestines into the blood and the removal of calcium from the bones into the blood. Vitamin D also reduces calcium loss in the urine. In most cases, the increased calcium absorption results in an increase in bone density and bone strength, which can help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

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Vitamin D Scientific Support
It is well accepted that adequate vitamin D levels are crucial for healthy bone development, maintenance of bone density and bone strength, and the prevention of osteoporosis. Vitamin D deficiency results in rickets (in children) and osteomalacia (in adults), both of which are characterized by a reduced level of calcium being deposited in bones and a weakening of bone strength.
A number of studies have clearly demonstrated that supplemental vitamin D intake (200 to 1,000 IU per day), usually combined with calcium, increases bone density and helps prevent osteoporosis. In one study, 240 healthy postmenopausal women consumed calcium (900 mg per day) and vitamin D (200 IU per day) for two years. Results showed a reduced loss of calcium in the urine and an increase of almost 2 percent in lumbar spine bone mineral density (a highly significant increase). Another study, also in postmenopausal women, included supplements containing 1,000 mg of calcium (as calcium carbonate) and 500 IU of vitamin D and showed a positive effect on bone density even though initial calcium and vitamin D status was adequate.

Vitamin D Safety
Because vitamin D is fat soluble, it is stored in the body and has the potential to reach toxic levels if taken in high doses for prolonged periods of time. Intakes over 1,000 IU (nearly three times the daily value) can cause nausea, diarrhea, skin rash, headaches, muscle weakness, calcium deposits, and kidney stones. Prolonged sunlight exposure does not cause buildup of vitamin D, as the body reduces its production when levels are adequate.

Vitamin D Value
For most people, there is no reason to take more than the recommended daily value (400 IU) of vitamin D. During the winter months, synthesis of vitamin D in the skin is severely reduced due to reduced exposure to sunlight. In some parts of the country (northern latitudes such as Boston or Seattle), virtually no vitamin synthesis occurs in skin during the winter months. Thus, vitamin D supplementation should be considered for people living in northern cities as well as by those who are not exposed to sunlight on a regular basis. In addition, elderly .individuals should consider vitamin D supplements, as the skin loses its ability to adequately synthesize vitamin D as we age. Frequent sunblock users may also consider a vitamin D supplement, as sunblocks can reduce the skin’s ability to produce vitamin D.

Vitamin D Dosage

The daily value for vitamin D is 400 IU, and supplements at this level
have been shown to be safe and effective in reducing calcium loss and maintaining bone density in postmenopausal women. Dietary supplements are not necessary in healthy, young individuals who are frequently exposed to moderate amounts of sunlight (15 minutes or so per day). In dietary supplements, vitamin D and calcium do not have to be taken together to be effective, but many calcium/vitamin D combinations are available and may be more convenient than taking separate tablets.

BORON

Boron is a trace element that influences calcium and magnesium metabolism. Although no recommended dietary allowance (RDA) has been established for boron, the average daily intake is highly variable, having been estimated at between 0.5 and 7 mg per day. Boron is found in most tissues, but is concentrated in the bone, spleen, and thyroid indicating boron’s functions in bone metabolism and suggesting a potential role for boron in hormone metabolism. Boron is found in relatively high levels in foods of plant origin, such as dried fruits, nuts, dark green leafy vegetables, applesauce, grape juice, and cooked dried beans and peas. Meat and fish are poor dietary sources of boron.

Boron Claims
• Increases muscle mass/strength
• Maintains bone density/improves calcium absorption

Boron Theory
Low boron diets have been associated with reduced testosterone levels, and boron supplements have been shown to increase serum levels of testosterone in postmenopausal women. This finding has spawned a number of boron supplements targeting athletes and bodybuilders and touting the benefits of boron for boosting testosterone levels, strength, and muscle mass.

Boron Scientific Support
The claims that boron boosts testosterone were based on a USDA study of boron deprived postmenopausal women in whom boron supplements increased testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels in postmenopausal women, however, are more than ten times lower than those found in normal men and in strength athletes. No studies suggest that boron supplementation alone will augment testosterone production or promote muscle growth in healthy men. In fact, a number of studies have shown no effect of boron supplements on serum testosterone in either men or women consuming a typical diet. Studies among bodybuilders have yielded similar “noneffects” of boron supplements on measures of lean body mass, body fat, and strength.

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In one study of boron supplementation in nineteen male bodybuilders (ages twenty to twenty seven years), ten subjects received 2.5 mg of boron per day for seven weeks (nine received a placebo). Although blood levels of boron were significantly elevated in the supplement group, boron supplementation had no significant effects on testosterone levels, lean body mass, or muscle strength.
In another study of boron supplementation in twelve postmenopausal women (ages forty eight to eighty two years) consuming a low boron diet (0.25 mg per day), the addition of a 3 mg per day boron supplement was shown to reduce the urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium (a possible bone health benefit) and to increase blood levels of estrogen (17 betaestradiol) and testosterone. Another study also looked at the benefits of boron supplements (3 mg per day for three weeks) on bone health finding no effect on urinary markers of bone breakdown (pyridinium cross links), but an increase in calcium absorption.

Boron Safety
Boron consumption of 1 to 10 mg per day is considered safe, but caution is warranted at higher intake levels, as consumption of 50 mg or more has been linked to toxicity, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, skin rashes, lethargy, and diarrhea.

Boron Value
As part of a balanced multivitamin/mineral supplement, boron may have beneficial effects on maintaining adequate calcium and magnesium metabolism for optimal bone health. Athletes looking to boron supplements to increase serum testosterone levels and improve muscle mass and strength should look elsewhere.

Boron Dosage

Daily needs for boron probably fall somewhere around 1 mg which is about the amount found in the following foods:
• 1.5 oz of raisins or prunes
• 2 oz of almonds or peanuts
• 4 oz of red wine

MAGNESIUM

Magnesium is a mineral that functions as a coenzyme (part of about 100 enzymes) for nerve and muscle function, regulation of body temperature, energy metabolism, DNA/RNA synthesis, and the formation of bones. The majority of the body’s magnesium (60 percent) is found in the bones. Food sources include artichokes, nuts, beans, whole grains, and shellfish. Too much can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Magnesium Claims
• Builds bone
• Increases energy levels
• Promotes heart health
• Enhances protein synthesis (muscle building)

Magnesium Theory
Because magnesium is needed as a cofactor for several enzymes to help convert carbohydrates, protein, and fat into energy, magnesium supplements may play a role in energy metabolism. Due to the role of magnesium in conducting nerve impulses, numerous magnesium based supplements have been promoted for support of heart function. Magnesium’s role in bone health stems from its primary location in bone tissue and its ability to help increase calcium absorption.

Magnesium Scientific Support
The scientific support for magnesium as an adjunct to calcium supplements is fairly well founded. Magnesium can help improve calcium absorption and may help maintain bone density in individuals at risk for excessive bone loss. A few studies have suggested a potential role for magnesium supplements in energy metabolism by showing increased exercise efficiency in endurance athletes. In general, however, no overwhelming evidence suggests any increases in muscular strength or elevated energy levels following magnesium supplementation.

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Magnesium Safety
Excessive magnesium intake can cause diarrhea and general gastrointestinal distress as well as interfere with calcium absorption and bone metabolism. Since there are no known benefits associated with consuming more than 600 mg per day of magnesium, higher intakes should be avoided.

Magnesium Value
Since nearly three quarters of the American population fails to consume enough magnesium from the diet, supplements may be warranted in some cases, particularly those in which bone metabolism are concerned.

Magnesium Dosage

The daily value for magnesium is 400 mg per day, but requirements may be elevated somewhat by stressors such as exercise and when taking calcium supplements for bone building or prevention of bone loss.

CALCIUM

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. The average adult has about 2 to 3 lb of calcium, with about 99 percent in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1 percent of body calcium is found in the blood and within cells, where calcium helps with dozens of metabolic processes. This 1 percent of blood and cellular calcium is so tightly maintained within normal ranges that the body will draw on calcium stores in the bones to get it even at the expense of causing osteoporosis. Good dietary sources of calcium include all dairy products and several vegetables such as broccoli, bok choy, and kale. A cup of milk contains about 300 mg of calcium.

Calcium Claims
• Promotes strong bones
• Lowers blood pressure
• Reduces risk of colon cancer
• Reduces symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Calcium Theory
More than 99 percent of the body’s calcium is stored in bones, where it serves both a structural and physiological role. The most obvious need for calcium is to help build and maintain strong bones, but calcium is also important for blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, and maintenance of normal blood pressure. There is also some evidence that calcium supplements may be helpful in reducing the risk of colon cancer, regulating heart rhythms, and treating PMS.

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Calcium Scientific Support
For decades, we have known about the important role that calcium plays in achieving and maintaining strong bones and helping to prevent osteoporosis. More recent research, much of it conducted over the past five years, has suggested a number of other beneficial health effects of getting adequate calcium in the diet. Among the more exciting research, scientists have recently shown that eating more calcium rich foods reduces the risk of colon cancer in men and that women who take daily calcium supplements can cut premenstrual symptoms in half (pain, bloating, mood swings, and food cravings). In other studies, researchers found that adequate calcium intake (along with vitamin D) can reduce blood pressure in women with mild hypertension and in black teenagers (two groups who rarely consume enough calcium). The hypertensive effects of a high salt diet tend to be most pronounced among people whose diets are low in calcium. In addition, women who take calcium supplements during pregnancy tend to give birth to children with healthier blood pressure levels (lower than average for the first seven years of life) which may reduce the child’s risk of developing high blood pressure later in life.

If that weren’t enough evidence that calcium supplements might be a good idea, there is also some evidence that calcium can even influence mood and behavior. The suggestion comes from a space shuttle study in which hypertensive rats became agitated when consuming a low calcium diet, but were more calm and relaxed when their diets contained adequate calcium levels.

Additional functions in which calcium plays a role:
• Transmission of nerve impulses and control of muscle contractions
• Release of chemical messengers for communication between nerves
• Chemical signaling between cells
• Regulation of hormone and enzyme production and activity (regulation of digestion, fat metabolism, energy production)
• Hormone secretion
• Blood clotting
• Wound healing

Calcium Safety
Side effects from calcium supplements are rare, but may be possible at extremely high intakes. The upper intake level (UL) for calcium is 2,500 mg per day. Intakes above 1,500 mg per day have not been associated with any greater benefits than more moderate intakes in the 1,200 to 1,500 mg per day range.

Calcium Value
Calcium it’s not just for bones anymore. The body’s calcium stores are much more than idle calcium warehouses they are actually a very active site of continuous mineral exchange between the bones and the blood. The bones continuously release calcium and other minerals into the circulation, where calcium plays a role in controlling blood pressure, easing PMS, and fighting colon cancer. Calcium is cheap, easily available, and well tolerated as a supplement. Practically nobody consumes enough calcium in their daily diet, so calcium is one of the nutrients for which supplementation is highly recommended.

Calcium Dosage

The daily reference intakes (DRIB) are reference values for nutrients that are intended to replace the older recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for use in diet planning and assessment. The DRIB reflect a shift in emphasis from preventing deficiency to decreasing the risk of chronic disease through nutrition. The RDAs focused on the amount of a specific nutrient needed to prevent certain deficiency diseases, while the DRIs will identify nutrient levels that can help prevent diet related chronic diseases: The daily reference intakes (DRI) recommend the following daily intakes for calcium:
• 1,300 mg for ages nine to eighteen
• 1,000 mg for adults ages nineteen to fifty
• 1,200 mg for older adults
• 1,500 mg for postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy

INOSINE

Inosine is a nucleoside involved in the formation of purines and has possible roles in energy metabolism.

Inosine Claims
• Increases energy levels and endurance performance
• Enhances ATP production
• Reduces lactic acid accumulation

Inosine Theory
Many of the effects attributed to inosine stem from its potential role in increasing levels of a compound known as 2,3 DPG in red blood cells. An enhanced 2,3 DPG level would allow an easier release of oxygen from the blood cells to the tissues and, in theory, an enhancement of energy generation, ability to remove lactic acid, and an overall improvement in exercise performance.

Inosine Scientific Support

Several studies have investigated the effects of inosine supplementation on aerobic performance in athletes, yet none have shown convincing benefits associated with the supplement. In at least two studies, a potential for inosine to interfere with energy metabolism was suggested, particularly in high intensity events such as sprinting.

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Inosine Safely
In general, supplemental inosine appears to be safe at doses of as much as 5 to 6 g for several weeks. In susceptible individuals, however, inosine supplementation may lead to buildup of uric acid levels. Uric acid is a by product of inosine metabolism and may lead to painful symptoms of gout such as arthritic joints and toes due to deposits of uric acid crystals.

Inosine Value
Because no convincing studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of
inosine as a dietary supplement, it is not recommended as a stand alone dietary aid. Inosine is commonly part of a mixture of ingredients in dietary supplements that may contribute to energy metabolism.

Inosine Dosage
Doses of 5 to 6 g over approximately one week have failed to show consistent beneficial effects. Using inosine as part of a more diverse mixture of energy promoting supplements may be a more logical approach.

BREWER’S YEAST

Brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is just what it sounds like the yeast that brewers use to make beer. Brewer’s yeast is different from baker’s yeast (which causes bread to rise) and is not related to the species that causes yeast infections, Candida albicans. Most of the supplemental forms of brewer’s yeast on the market are a by product of beer making so many of the raw forms may have quite a bitter taste.

Brewer’s Yeast Claims
• Lowers cholesterol
• Increases energy levels
• Boosts exercise performance
• Reduces blood sugar

Brewer’s Yeast Theory
Brewer’s yeast tends to be a fairly good source of many vitamins and minerals, including thiamine (B1), riboflavin (BO, niacin (B3), folic acid, pyridoxine (B6), Bi2, chromium, copper, iron, and zinc all of which have widespread functions in many areas of metabolism and health.

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Brewer’s Yeast Scientific Support
There really aren’t any credible scientific reports showing the efficacy of brewer’s yeast on any of the health claims made by manufacturers. Aside from using it as a source of B vitamins, the evidence for brewer’s yeast as an effective dietary supplement is weak.

Brewer’s Yeast Safety
Only mild gastrointestinal side effects are noted usually occurring in the first few days as your body gets used to the yeast intake.

Brewer’s Yeast Value

Because the exact nutrient content of brewer’s yeast will vary depending on how it is grown and processed, make sure you check the label for precise nutrient levels. Brewer’s yeast products, depending on the other nutrients that it may be mixed with, tend to cost in the range of $20 to $30 per month. There are certainly less expensive and more pure sources of vitamins and minerals to choose from.

Brewer’s Yeast Dosage
If you decide to give brewer’s yeast a try, it is suggested to start with about 1/4 teaspoon per day, slowly increasing your intake to 1 to 3 tablespoons per day (check the supplement facts panel for recommended serving sizes of specific products).

SEA BUCKTHORN

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), also known as Siberian pineapple, is a small shrub native to Europe and Asia. The berries have been used since the days of ancient Greece as a remedy for promoting weight gain and a shiny coat in horses. In traditional Chinese medicine, sea buckthorn is used for “invigoration” and increasing energy levels. In Russia, sea buckthorn has been used in creams to help protect cosmonauts from radiation damage. A number of cosmetics companies in the United States add sea buckthorn to their skin creams as a wound healer and skin protectant. In China, a number of sea buckthorn based sports drinks have been used by athletes as a training and performance aid.

Sea Buckthorn Claims
• Increases energy levels
• Promotes wound healing
• Protects skin from UV damage

Sea Buckthorn Theory
Biochemical analysis of sea buckthorn berries reveal them as a rich source of vitamins C and E, carotenoids, and flavonoids as well as glucose, fructose, and several amino acids and fatty acids (like all other berries).

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Sea Buckthorn Scientific Support
There are a handful of preliminary studies on the wound healing and tissue protecting ability of sea buckthorn extracts, but no published reports support its use to improve energy levels. In animal studies, sea buckthorn has been shown to strengthen cardiac pump function and myocardial contractility in dogs with heart failure. It also appears to improve the heart’s ability to use oxygen (in dogs and in test=tube cultures of heart cells from rats and guinea pigs).

Sea Buckthorn Safety
No known side effects are associated with topical or internal use of sea buckthorn, but there are also no studies showing long term safety.

Sea Buckthorn Value
Preparations of sea buckthorn oils are generally recommended for external use in the case of burns and other skin damage as well as internally for the treatment of stomach and duodenal ulcers. There have also been anecdotal reports of using sea buckthorn extracts to reduce tumor growth and treat high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Sea buckthorn oils contain high concentrations of palmitoleic acid. This relatively rare fatty acid is a component of skin fat and can support cell tissue and wound healing. It is generally accepted in the cosmetic industry that sea buckthorn oils have unique antiaging properties. As a result, they are becoming an important component of many facial creams.

Sea Buckthorn Dosage
Due to the lack of solid scientific evidence for the proposed benefits of sea buckthorn, it is difficult to make a definitive dosage recommendation. In general, typical usage of sea buckthorn may range from 250 to 500 mg orally as an energy promoter to gram quantities as a topical skin protectant and healer.

NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE (NADH)

NADH is the abbreviation for a molecule with the tongue twisting name nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), with the “H” indicating the reduced form (with an extra hydrogen atom). NADH functions as a coenzyme, meaning that it is a required cofactor for a metabolic process. Without the coenzyme, the reaction will not happen (or it may happen very slowly). In the case of NADH, coenzyme functions include roles in energy generation and production of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine.

NADH Claims
• Increases energy levels
• Reduces chronic fatigue
• Stimulates cognitive function
• Enhances memory and reaction time
• Improves mood and emotional balance

NADH Theory
The precise cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is unknown. Symptoms include prolonged, debilitating fatigue, inability to concentrate, flu like symptoms, muscle weakness, joint pain, headaches, and sleep disturbances. CFS affects about 500,000 Americans but no effective treatment is known. Researchers theorize that CFS stems from a lack of the chemical responsible for cellular energy, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). One theory posits that both infections and stress may deplete cellular ATP levels and lead to chronic fatigue, but that supplemental levels of NADH can stimulate ATP production and provide benefits to people suffering from fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. Further benefits from NADH may stem from its role in stimulating the production of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine (involved in brain function and memory) as well. as from the stimulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (an enzyme involved in synthesizing neurotransmitters).

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NADH Scientific Support
Because NADH is thought to stimulate ATP generation, it may also increase energy levels and reduce fatigue. In a handful of small studies, 30 to 50 percent of patients receiving 10 mg per day of NADH for four weeks responded favorably by reporting a significant lessening of their chronic fatigue symptoms. More recent studies of NADH supplementation have shown a modest benefit in combating the deficits in energy and concentration associated with disrupted sleep and jet lag.

NADH Safety
Some individuals report mild side effects such as nervousness. and loss of appetite in the first few days of taking NADH. No serious side effects are documented.

NADH Value
NAD14 supplements typically cost approximately $1 per 5 mg dose meaning that an effective dose of the supplement may cost between $1 and $3 per day. Based on the lack of a reliable treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome and the preliminary positive results from pilot studies, individuals affected with this debilitating condition may want to consider investing $30 to $90 for a monthly supply.

NADH Dosage
NADH is found in small amounts in most foods, with meat and poultry providing the highest levels at about 4 to 5 mg per 4 oz serving (but cooking may destroy NADH). The leading brand of NADH supplement, Enada, is available in 2.5 mg and 5 mg tablets. Suggested dosage ranges from 2.5 to 15 mg per day, depending on individual requirements (e.g., therapy or maintenance).